Smoking in China: findings of the 1996 National Prevalence Survey

JAMA. 1999 Oct 6;282(13):1247-53. doi: 10.1001/jama.282.13.1247.


Context: As the world's largest producer and consumer of tobacco products, China bears a large proportion of the global burden of smoking-related disease and may be experiencing a tobacco epidemic.

Objective: To develop an evidence-based approach supporting tobacco control initiatives in China.

Design and setting: A population-based survey consisting of a 52-item questionnaire that included information on demographics, smoking history, smoking-related knowledge and attitudes, cessation, passive smoke exposure, and health status was administered in 145 disease surveillance points in the 30 provinces of China from March through July 1996.

Participants: A nationally representative random sample of 128766 persons aged 15 to 69 years were asked to participate; 120298 (93.8%) provided data and were included in the final analysis. About two thirds of those sampled were from rural areas and one third were from urban areas.

Main outcome measures: Current smoking patterns and attitudes; changes in smoking patterns and attitudes compared with results of a previous national survey conducted in 1984.

Results: A total of 41187 respondents smoked at least 1 cigarette per day, accounting for 34.1% of the total number of respondents, an increase of 3.4 percentage points since 1984. Current smoking continues to be prevalent among more men (63%) than women (3.8%). Age at smoking initiation declined by about 3 years for both men and women (from 28 to 25 years). Only a minority of smokers recognized that lung cancer (36%) and heart disease (4%) can be caused by smoking. Of the nonsmokers, 53.5% were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke at least 15 minutes per day on more than 1 day per week. Respondents were generally supportive of tobacco control measures.

Conclusion: The high rates of smoking in men found in this study signal an urgent need for smoking prevention and cessation efforts; tobacco control initiatives are needed to maintain or decrease the currently low smoking prevalence in women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • China / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Random Allocation
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / statistics & numerical data


  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution