Chordoid glioma of the third ventricle was recently reported as a novel tumor entity of the central nervous system with characteristic clinical and histopathological features (Brat et al., J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 57: 283-290, 1998). Here, we report on a histopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic analysis of five cases of this rare neoplasm. All tumors were immunohistochemically investigated for the expression of various differentiation antigens, the proliferation marker Ki-67, and a panel of selected proto-oncogene and tumor suppressor gene products. These studies revealed a strong expression of GFAP, vimentin, and CD34. In addition, most tumors contained small fractions of neoplastic cells immunoreactive for epithelial membrane antigen, S-100 protein, or cytokeratins. The percentage of Ki-67 positive cells was generally low (<5%). All tumors showed immunoreactivity for the epidermal growth factor receptor and schwannomin/merlin. There was no nuclear accumulation of the p53, p21 (Waf-1) and Mdm2 proteins. To examine genomic alterations associated with the development of chordoid gliomas, we screened 4 tumors by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. No chromosomal imbalances were detected. More focussed molecular genetic analyses revealed neither aberrations of the TP53 and CDKN2A tumor suppressor genes nor amplification of the EGFR, CDK4, and MDM2 proto-oncogenes. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that chordoid glioma of the third ventricle constitutes a novel tumor entity characterized by distinct morphological and immunohistochemical features, as well as a lack of chromosomal and genetic alterations commonly found in other types of gliomas or in meningiomas.