The levels of antioxidative enzymes are regulated by gene expressions as well as by post-translational modifications. Although their functions are to scavenge reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), they may also be targets of various oxidants. When ROS and RNS modify the functions of antioxidative enzymes, especially glutathione peroxidase, they may induce apoptotic cell death in susceptible cells. It is conceivable, therefore, that at least a part of the apoptotic pathways mediated by ROS and RNS may be associated with modification of the redox regulation of cellular functions due to elevations of such substances. In this article we review recent findings about the effects of various oxidative conditions associated with alteration of these antioxidative enzymes and the concomitant cellular damage induced.