Control of cell proliferation is important for cancer prevention since cell proliferation has essential roles in carcinogenesis including the process of initiation and promotion. In rodent models for carcinogenesis, especially those for the carcinogenesis in digestive organs such as colon, liver or oral cavity, chemopreventive agents suppress carcinogen-induced hyperproliferation of cells in the target organs during the initiation as well as the postinitiation phases. Therefore, effective agents usually suppress cell proliferation and inhibit the occurrence of malignant lesions. Availability of new biomarkers for cell proliferation, apoptosis or telomerase activity could be promising. By combining the use of intermediate biomarkers including premalignant lesions such as aberrant crypt foci in the colon or enzyme-altered foci in the liver and cell proliferation, short-term screening of effective chemopreventive agents will be possible.