Cytokines in heart failure: pathogenetic mechanisms and potential treatment

Proc Assoc Am Physicians. 1999 Sep-Oct;111(5):423-8. doi: 10.1111/paa.1999.111.5.423.


Recent studies have shown that patients with heart failure overexpress a class of biologically active molecules, generically referred to as pro-inflammatory cytokines. This article will review recent clinical and experimental material that suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) may play a role in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure. In addition, we will review recent studies that suggest that antagonizing cytokines may represent a novel target for heart failure therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cytokines / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cytokines / physiology*
  • Heart Failure / drug therapy
  • Heart Failure / etiology*
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Inflammation Mediators / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Inflammation Mediators / physiology
  • Interleukin-1 / physiology
  • Interleukin-6 / physiology
  • Models, Cardiovascular
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology


  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha