Computer-vision-enabled augmented reality fundus biomicroscopy

Ophthalmology. 1999 Oct;106(10):1935-41. doi: 10.1016/S0161-6420(99)90404-9.


Purpose: To guide treatment for macular diseases and to facilitate real-time image measurement and comparison, investigations were initiated to permit overlay of previously stored photographic and angiographic images directly onto the real-time slit-lamp biomicroscopic fundus image.

Design: Experimental study in model eyes, and preliminary observations in human subjects.

Methods: A modified, binocular video slit lamp interfaced to a personal computer and framegrabber allows for image acquisition and rendering of stored images overlaid onto the real-time slit-lamp biomicroscopic fundus image. Development proceeds with rendering on a computer monitor, while construction is completed on a miniature display interfaced directly with one of the slit-lamp oculars. Registration and tracking are performed with in-house-developed software.

Main outcome measures: Tracking speed and accuracy, ergonomic acceptability.

Results: Computer-vision algorithms permit robust montaging, tracking, registration, and rendering of previously stored photographic and angiographic images onto the real-time slit-lamp fundus biomicroscopic image. In model eyes and in preliminary studies in a human eye, optimized registration permits near-video-rate image overlay with updates at 3 to 10 Hz and misregistration errors on the order of 1 to 5 pixels.

Conclusions: A prototype for ophthalmic augmented reality (image overlay) is presented. The current hardware/software implementation allows for robust performance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / pathology*
  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Fundus Oculi*
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Macular Degeneration / pathology*
  • Microscopy
  • Models, Anatomic