Discrete Expression of Insulin Receptor substrate-4 mRNA in Adult Rat Brain

Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999 Sep 8;72(1):97-102. doi: 10.1016/s0169-328x(99)00160-6.


The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are a family of important regulatory adapters that mediate the coupling between receptor-associated tyrosine kinases and downstream effectors including phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinases (PI-3-Ks). In the present study, the distribution of IRS-4 mRNA was determined in rat brain by in situ hybridization. IRS-4 mRNA was widely expressed throughout the hypothalamus, with the most dense labeling observed in the medial preoptic nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, and arcuate nucleus. In contrast, and unlike IRS-1 or IRS-2, expression of IRS-4 mRNA in other forebrain and midbrain regions was much more restricted. The expression of IRS-4 mRNA in the hypothalamus suggests a specific role for this factor in the signaling of one or more receptors involved hypothalamic functions including feeding, lactation, sexual and parental behaviors.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
  • Male
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics*
  • Organ Specificity
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / physiology
  • Phosphoproteins / biosynthesis
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Signal Transduction


  • IRS4 protein, rat
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Phosphoproteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases