Interactions of retinoid binding proteins and enzymes in retinoid metabolism

Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Sep 22;1440(2-3):139-62. doi: 10.1016/s1388-1981(99)00117-1.


Naturally occurring retinoids (vitamin A or retinol and its active metabolites) are vital for vision, controlling the differentiation program of epithelial cells in the digestive tract and respiratory system, skin, bone, the nervous system, the immune system, and for hematopoiesis. Retinoids are essential for growth, reproduction (conception and embryonic development), and resistance to and recovery from infection. The functions of retinoids in the embryo begin soon after conception and continue throughout the lifespan of all vertebrates. Both naturally occurring and synthetic retinoids are used in the therapy of various skin diseases, especially acne, for augmenting the treatment of diabetes, and as cancer chemopreventive agents. Retinol metabolites serve as ligands that activate specific transcription factors in the superfamily of steroid/retinoid/thyroid/vitamin D/orphan receptors and thereby control gene expression. Additionally, retinoids may also function through non-genomic actions. Various retinoid binding proteins serve as partners in retinoid function. These binding proteins show high specificity and affinity for specific retinoids and seem to control retinoid metabolism in vivo qualitatively and quantitatively by reducing 'free' retinoid concentrations, protecting retinoids from non-specific interactions, and chaperoning access of metabolic enzymes to retinoids. Implementation of the physiological effects of retinoids depends on the spatial-temporal expressions of binding proteins, receptors and metabolic enzymes. This review will discuss current understanding of the enzymes that catalyze retinol and retinoic acid metabolism and their unique and integral relationship to retinoid binding proteins.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Alitretinoin
  • Animals
  • Esters / metabolism
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • Retinal Dehydrogenase
  • Retinaldehyde / biosynthesis
  • Retinoids / chemistry
  • Retinoids / metabolism*
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Tretinoin / metabolism


  • Esters
  • Retinoids
  • Retinol-Binding Proteins
  • Alitretinoin
  • Tretinoin
  • Alcohol Oxidoreductases
  • Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
  • Alcohol Dehydrogenase
  • retinol dehydrogenase
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases
  • Retinal Dehydrogenase
  • Retinaldehyde