Assessment of laryngeal view: percentage of glottic opening score vs Cormack and Lehane grading

Can J Anaesth. 1999 Oct;46(10):987-90. doi: 10.1007/BF03013137.


Purpose: To examine the intra- and inter-rater reliability of two methods that categorize laryngeal view during direct laryngoscopy, the Cormack-Lehane grading system and a new scale, the percentage of glottic opening (POGO) scale.

Methods: Seven anesthesiologists from the University of Pennsylvania Health System viewed 25 identical pairs of slides of laryngeal views during direct laryngoscopy. Each anesthesiologist rated the 50 slides for both Cormack-Lehane grades and POGO scores. The latter CL replaces grades 1 and 2 C-L grades with a percentage of glottic opening: the POGO score. Inter and intra-physician reliability for the Cormack-Lehane grades were determined using the kappa statistic analysis, comparison of POGO scores was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficients (rI).

Results: The POGO score had a better inter and intra-physician reliability than the Cormack-Lehane grading system. The intra-physician reliability for the POGO score was very good with an average interclass rI value of 0.88. The inter-physician score was good with a rI of 0.73. The Cormack-Lehane grading system had excellent intra-physician concordance (average kappa = 0.83.) but the inter-physician reliability was poor (kappa = 0.16.)

Conclusion: The Cormack-Lehane grading system has very poor inter-physician reliability. The lack of inter-physician reliability with Cormack-Lehane grading calls into question the results of previous studies in which different laryngoscopists used this method to assess laryngeal view. The POGO score appears to have good intra and inter-rater reliability. It has several theoretical advantages and may prove to be more useful for research studies in direct laryngoscopy.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Glottis*
  • Humans
  • Intubation, Intratracheal / methods
  • Laryngoscopy / methods*
  • Larynx*
  • Observer Variation
  • Reproducibility of Results