The use of insulin alone and in combination with oral agents in type 2 diabetes

Prim Care. 1999 Dec;26(4):931-50. doi: 10.1016/s0095-4543(05)70140-8.


To achieve optimal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes, clinical trial data suggest that near normal glycemic control should be targeted. Insulin is arguably the most effective treatment available for diabetes and yet many patients remain poorly controlled without the benefit of insulin therapy. Discussion of its putative risks and benefits as well as the barriers to its wider use both in the context of monotherapy and in combination with oral antidiabetic agents is provided. Application of the strategies and principles of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes should minimize the burden of complications in patients with the disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acarbose / therapeutic use
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Chromans / therapeutic use
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Metformin / therapeutic use
  • Self Care
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds / therapeutic use*
  • Thiazoles / therapeutic use
  • Thiazolidinediones*
  • Troglitazone


  • Blood Glucose
  • Chromans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Sulfonylurea Compounds
  • Thiazoles
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Metformin
  • Troglitazone
  • Acarbose