Characterization of the rat, mouse, and human genes of growth/differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibiting cytokine-1 (GDF-15/MIC-1)

Gene. 1999 Sep 3;237(1):105-11. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00309-1.


We have isolated the rat, mouse and human genes of a distant member of the TGF-beta superfamily, growth/differentiation factor-15/macrophage inhibiting cytokine-1 (GDF-15/MIC-1) by screening of genomic libraries. All three genes are composed of two exons, and contain one single intron that interrupts the coding sequences at identical positions within the prepro-domain of the corresponding proteins. The predicted proteins contain the structural hallmarks of members of the TGF-beta superfamily, including the seven conserved carboxy-terminal cysteine residues that form the cystine knot. The orthologous molecules show the lowest sequence conservation of all members of the TGF-beta superfamily. RT-PCR reveals an abundant expression of GDF-15/MIC-1 mRNA in numerous embryonic and adult organs and tissues. Promoter analysis of the rat promoter indicates the presence of multiple regulatory elements, including a TATA-like sequence as well as several SP1, AP-1 and AP-2 sites. Deletion analysis suggests that a 350 bp region upstream of the start of the open reading frame appears to be the most important for regulation of transcription.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cytokines / genetics*
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Organ Specificity
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Rats
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / genetics
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • GDF15 protein, human
  • Gdf15 protein, mouse
  • Gdf15 protein, rat
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 15
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AJ011967
  • GENBANK/AJ011968
  • GENBANK/AJ011969
  • GENBANK/AJ011970
  • GENBANK/AJ011971
  • GENBANK/AJ011972
  • GENBANK/AJ011973
  • GENBANK/AJ011974
  • GENBANK/AJ011975
  • GENBANK/AJ011976
  • GENBANK/AJ011977
  • GENBANK/AJ011978
  • GENBANK/AJ011979
  • GENBANK/AJ011980
  • GENBANK/AJ011981
  • GENBANK/AJ011982
  • GENBANK/AJ011983
  • GENBANK/AJ011984
  • GENBANK/AJ011985
  • GENBANK/AJ011986
  • GENBANK/AJ011987
  • GENBANK/AJ011988
  • GENBANK/AJ011989
  • GENBANK/AJ011990
  • GENBANK/AJ011991
  • GENBANK/AJ011992
  • GENBANK/AJ011993
  • GENBANK/AJ011994
  • GENBANK/AJ011995
  • GENBANK/AJ011996