Growth and function of the thyroid and adrenal glands are maintained and controlled by thyrotropin (TSH) and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), respectively. The action of these trophic hormones requires the presence of functional TSH and ACTH receptors. We describe a large inbred Bedouin kindred in which profound congenital hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocortisolism occurred alone or together in eight family members belonging to four nuclear families. The high serum TSH and ACTH levels in the presence of normal or hypoplastic thyroid glands and low glucocorticoid, but not mineralocorticoid concentrations, are characteristic of resistance to TSH and ACTH. Linkage analysis, using specific polymorphic markers, excluded the involvement of the ACTH receptor but not thyrotropin receptor (TSHR). A novel point mutation was identified in exon 10 of the TSHR that replaces the normal cytosine in nucleotide 2024 with a thymidine. As a result the normal arginine in codon 609 (CGA) is replaced with a stop codon (TGA). This mutation produces a truncated TSHR lacking the third intracellular and extracellular loops, the sixth and seventh transmembrane segments, and the intracytoplasmic tail. The presence of hypothyroidism did not affect the timing, severity, and manner of clinical manifestation of hypoadrenocortisolism.