We conducted prospective, active population-based surveillance for candidemia (defined as any Candida species isolated from blood) in Atlanta and San Francisco (total population, 5.34 million) during 1992-1993. The average annual incidence of candidemia at both sites was 8 per 100,000 population. The highest incidence (75 per 100,000) occurred among infants </=1 year old. In 19% of patients, candidemia developed prior to or on the day of admission. Underlying medical conditions included cancer (26%), abdominal surgery (14%), diabetes mellitus (13%), and human immunodeficiency virus infection (10%). In 47% of cases, species of Candida other than Candida albicans were isolated, most commonly Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis. Antifungal susceptibility testing of 394 isolates revealed minimal levels of azole resistance among C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis. These data document the substantial burden of candidemia and its changing epidemiology. Continued surveillance will be important to monitor the epidemiology of candidemia and to detect emergence of resistance to azoles.