Background: Esophageal carcinoma is one of the most lethal tumors. Therefore, it is important to identify prognostic factors for patients with this disease. The objective of this study was to clarify the relation between clinicopathologic and biologic factors in esophageal carcinoma and to determine the prognostic significance of different biologic factors.
Methods: DNA ploidy pattern, Ki-67 labeling index (LI), and cyclin D1 and p53 protein expression were examined and detailed pathologic examinations were conducted on tumors from 53 patients (46 males and 7 females with a mean age of 66 years [range, 47-85 years]) with surgically resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and the prognostic value of these factors was evaluated.
Results: Of the 53 esophagus carcinomas examined, 26 (49%) were classified as DNA diploid. The mean Ki-67 LI was 45 +/- 4. 9% (range, 10.5-86.1%). p53 expression was detected in 38 of the carcinomas (71.7%) and cyclin D1 expression was detected in 35 (66%). Various prognostic factors were examined using the Cox stepwise regression model, four of which were found to correlate with overall survival: tumor size (P = 0.0346), lymph node status (P = 0.0384), Ki-67 LI (P = 0.0161), and p53 expression (P = 0.001). Lower Ki-67 LI and a lower rate of p53 expression were detected in the long term survival group (> 3 years) compared with the short term survival group (P = 0.00045 and P = 0.0023, respectively).
Conclusions: The biologic factors of Ki-67 LI and p53 expression, as well as clinicopathologic factors, may be used as independent prognostic factors for patients with esophageal carcinoma. However, the results of the current study do not support cyclin D1 expression as a prognostic factor.
Copyright 1999 American Cancer Society.