ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling: SWI/SNF and Co. are on the job

J Mol Biol. 1999 Oct 22;293(2):187-98. doi: 10.1006/jmbi.1999.2999.


SWI/SNF, RSC, NURF, CHRAC, ACF, RSF and NuRD are highly conserved multiprotein complexes that use the energy of ATP-hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. These complexes that have different subunit composition, all rely on helicase-like enzymes for ATPase activity and affect chromatin structure in similar ways. The specific function of the different complexes remains unclear, but many of them seem to be involved in transcriptional regulation. Although all cellular genes may not depend on chromatin remodelling for normal expression, recent data has shown that the complexes are required for both positive and negative control of a variety of cellular pathways.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle
  • Chromatin / genetics*
  • Chromatin / metabolism*
  • DNA Helicases
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics*
  • Genes, Homeobox / genetics
  • Genes, Switch / genetics
  • Globins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Nuclear Proteins*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*


  • Chromatin
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • ISWI protein
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • SMARCA1 protein, human
  • SMARCA2 protein, human
  • Transcription Factors
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Globins
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • SMARCA4 protein, human
  • DNA Helicases