Currently, molecular pathology plays a limited role in improving patient outcome in gynecologic oncology. However, molecular investigation is providing important insights into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and progression of female genital cancers. Future roles should include prediction of poor outcome in low-risk cases, more accurate staging of multifocal tumors, identification of new precursor lesions, and prediction of response to specific therapeutic regimens. Gene therapy of some malignant tumors may become important in the near future. In the immediate future, however, the most significant role of molecular pathology may be in the screening and triage of putative cervical cancer precursors and in the possible prophylaxis of these lesions by means of a vaccine or vaccines against human papillomaviruses.