Sixteen ultraviolet-B radiation-regulated pea genes were identified. Functionally, the corresponding proteins were divided into four groups. (i) Chloroplast-localized proteins. Genes for these proteins were down-regulated, underlining the deleterious effects of UV-B on this organelle. A novel down-regulated photosystem I light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (PsLhcA4), was cloned and sequenced. (ii) Protein turnover enzymes. Levels of mature mRNAs for the PU1 and PsUBC4 genes, encoding proteins of the ubiquitin protein degradation pathway, were up- and down-regulated, respectively, implying alteration of plant cell protein content by changes in both gene expression and protein degradation. (iii) Proteins involved in intracellular signalling. Expression of genes for small GTPases, rab and rho homologues, were altered. (iv) Phenylpropanoid or flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression of three genes encoding enzymes in these pathways were up-regulated and one of them, the novel PsC450R1, was cloned and sequenced. Moreover, unexpected high molecular mass psbA RNA adducts were found to appear after UV-B exposure. In addition, a large increase in corresponding high molecular mass adducts were also found for PsLhcA4, and PsUBC4 mRNA and 23S rRNA. These RNA species do not contain protein and probably appear due to cross-linking of two or more RNA molecules, or are the result of UV-B-induced failure of transcription termination.