Smokeless tobacco use in adolescents: the Cardiovascular Health in Children (CHIC II) Study

J Sch Health. 1999 Oct;69(8):320-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.1999.tb06421.x.


Smokeless tobacco has seen a resurgence of popularity among adolescents despite its association with oral cancer and altered cardiovascular function. This study examined age, gender, ethnicity, self-esteem, physical activity, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status as predictors of smokeless tobacco use among middle school children. Subjects included 1,211 youth (White (64%), Black (24%), Hispanic (6%), and Other (6%); age 12.2) participating in the Cardiovascular Health in Children and Youth (CHIC II) study. All data were collected by questionnaire. Factors related to ever using smokeless tobacco included older age (p < .001), being male (p < .001), lower self-esteem (p < .001), and having parents who currently (p = .02) or formerly (p = .05) smoked. Hispanics reported a higher current usage rate than other ethnic groups (p < .001). White youth in the lowest socioeconomic status were most likely to be experimental users (p = .007), while those in the high socioeconomic status were more likely to be current users (p = .006). Physical activity was not associated with smokeless tobacco use.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • North Carolina / epidemiology
  • Physical Fitness
  • Plants, Toxic*
  • Rural Population
  • Self Concept
  • Sex Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Tobacco, Smokeless*