There has been an evolution in vascular access in the neonate. Newer types of materials and catheters, such as PICC lines and ECMO catheters, are now available. The frequency of line placement has increased, and radiologists now perform many of these procedures. This places the radiologist in the position of not only diagnosing complications, but actually causing them. Knowledge of these complications can help the practitioner avoid them and diagnose them as quickly as possible when they occur.