A previously undescribed mosquito densovirus was detected in colonies of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Thailand, using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus showed it to be most closely related to ADNV isolated from Russian Ae. aegypti. Both Aedes species were susceptible to oral infection with the Thai-strain virus. Larval mortality for Ae. albopictus was higher (82%) than for Ae. aegypti (51%). Aedes aegypti were able to transmit the virus vertically to a high (58%) proportion of G1 progeny, and the virus was maintained persistently for up to six generations. A PCR survey of adult Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Thailand indicated that only Ae. aegypti are infected in the field, with an overall prevalence of 44%. Densovirus infection in adult Ae. aegypti showed distinct seasonal variation. The Thai strain densovirus may play a role in structuring Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations in nature.