To determine if GB virus C (GBV-C) or hepatitis G (HGV) infection can be transmitted by heterosexual intercourse, we tested serum samples from 234 non-drug-injecting female prostitutes for GBV-C/HGV. We used reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to test for GBV-C/HGV RNA and ELISA for GBV-C/HGV-E2 antibody. The prevalence of total GBV-C/HGV marker (GBV-C/HGV RNA and/or GBV-C/HGV-E2 antibody) was 58/234 (24.8%) in the prostitutes, and 7/71 (8.9%) in matched controls. The GBV-C/HGV RNA and GBV-C/HGV-E2 antibody concurrence rate was 12.5% for the prostitutes, but was nil in matched controls. Total GBV-C/HGV marker was significantly higher in the prostitutes than in matched controls. Additionally, total GBV-C/HGV marker was associated with the number of years engaged in prostitution after adjusting for age. We found hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections in prostitutes to be associated with syphilis infection, but GBV-C/HGV infection was not. Thus, it seems likely that GBV-C/HGV can be transmitted by heterosexual intercourse, even in the absence of syphilis.