Association of some potential hormone response elements in human genes with the Alu family repeats

Gene. 1999 Nov 1;239(2):341-9. doi: 10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00391-1.


Short interspersed repeats of the Alu family located in promoters of some human genes contain high-affinity binding sites for thyroid hormone receptor, retinoic acid receptor and estrogen receptor. The standard binding sites for the receptors represent variants of duplicated AGGTCA motif with different spacing and orientation (direct, DR, or inverted, IR), and Alu sequences were found to have functional DR-4, DR-2 or variant IR-3/IR-17 elements. In this study we analyzed distribution and abundance of the elements in a set of human genomic sequences from GenBank and their association with Alu repeats. Our results indicate that a major fraction of potentially active DR-4, DR-2 and variant IR-3/IR-17 elements in the genes is located within Alu repeats. Alu-associated DR-2 elements are conserved in primate evolution. However, very few Alu have potential DR-3 glucocorticoid-response elements. Gel-shift experiments with the probe (AUB) corresponding to the consensus Alu sequence just upstream of the RNA polymerase III promoter B-box and containing duplicated AGGTCA motif indicate that the probe interacts in a sequence-specific manner with human nuclear proteins which bind to standard IR-0, DR-1, DR-4 or DR-5 elements. The AUB sequence was also able to promote thyroid hormone-dependent trans-activation of a reporter gene. The results support the view that Alu retroposons played an important role in evolution of regulation of the primate gene expression by nuclear hormone receptors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alu Elements / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Binding Sites / genetics
  • Binding, Competitive
  • Cell Line
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA / genetics
  • DNA / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Genes / genetics*
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Primates / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism*
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / genetics
  • Receptors, Thyroid Hormone / metabolism
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • STAT2 Transcription Factor
  • Trans-Activators / genetics


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Thyroid Hormone
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • STAT2 Transcription Factor
  • Trans-Activators
  • DNA