Various polypeptide growth factors are generally considered to be involved in the regulation of the nephrogenic process both after acute renal injury and during renal development. Because platelet-derived growth factor B-chain (PDGF-B) has been reported to be expressed in immature tubulus of the developing kidney, PDGF-B could play a role in the process of tubulogenesis. We examined the expression of PDGF-B and PDGF receptors alpha and beta and their localization in kidneys after ischemia/reperfusion injury. The mRNA expressions of PDGF-B, PDGFR-alpha, and PDGFR-beta were enhanced after injury. In the immunohistochemical analysis and/or in situ hybridization, PDGF-B and PDGFR-alpha, beta were expressed after reperfusion in the S3 segment of the proximal tubuli, where they were not expressed normally. The expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and vimentin were concomitantly observed with PDGF-B and PDGFRs in the tubular cells of injured S3 segment at 48 hours after injury. Next, the inhibition of the PDGF-B/PDGFRs axis with either Trapidil or Ki6896, which was found to inhibit the phosphorylation of PDGFR-beta selectively, resulted in a rise of serum creatinine, higher mortality rate, abnormal regenerating process, and suppressed proliferation of tubular epithelial cells. These findings suggest that the PDGF-B/PDGFRs axis is involved in the proliferation of injured tubular cells and plays an important role in the regeneration of tubular cells from acute ischemic injury.