The X-linked subcortical laminar heterotopia and lissencephaly syndrome is a disorder of neuronal migration caused by a mutation in XLIS, a recently cloned gene on chromosome Xq22.3-q23. The predicted protein product for XLIS, doublecortin (DC), shows high homology to a putative calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase, KIAA0369 protein (KI). Here we identified DC and KI in the brains of human and rat fetuses by immunochemical and immunohistochemical means. In this study, Western blotting demonstrated that both DC and KI are specific to the nervous system and are abundant during the fetal period, around 20 gestational weeks in humans and embryonic days 17 to 20 in rats. Immunostaining of the developing neocortex disclosed localization of DC and KI immunoreactivities in neuronal cell bodies and processes in the zones of ongoing neuronal migration. Although KI showed a somewhat wider distribution than DC, the temporal and spatial patterns of their expression were similar. These results suggest that DC and KI participate in a common signaling pathway regulating neuronal migration.