The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sex differences in delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), torque, and accumulation of technetium-99m (Tc-99m) neutrophils in eccentric-exercised muscle. A group of 10 female and 12 male subjects took part in this study. The subjects completed a pre-test using the descriptor differential scale (DDS) to describe DOMS, and tests of concentric and eccentric torque of the right quadriceps. A volume of 100 ml of blood was taken by venipuncture for neutrophil labelling in the early morning of the exercise day. The Tc-99m neutrophils were re-infused intravenously before the eccentric exercise. The exercise stimulus consisted of 300 eccentric repetitions of the right quadriceps muscles. Radionuclide images of both quadriceps muscles (lateral views) were taken at 2 and 4 h. The DDS, and concentric and eccentric torques of the quadriceps were subsequently evaluated at 0 h, 2, 4, 20 and 24 h post-exercise. The presence of Tc-99m neutrophils was greater in the exercised leg than the non-exercised leg at 2 and 4 h post-exercise (P </= 0.013) and greater in the exercised leg of the women compared to the men at 2 h (P = 0.03). The DOMS had increased post-exercise (P < 0.001) and torque had decreased post-exercise (P </= 0.002) but the patterns were different between the sexes. We concluded that the sex influences the presence of Tc-99m neutrophils in the exercised muscle following eccentric exercise. In addition, different patterns of DOMS and torque were observed between the sexes after eccentric exercise, and require further investigation.