This study assessed the clinical utility of mitral annulus velocity in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function in patients with atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. The clinical usefulness of conventional Doppler indexes is limited in atrial fibrillation because of the altered left atrial pressure and loss of synchronized atrial contraction. Mitral inflow and mitral annulus velocities were measured simultaneously with tau in 27 patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation at the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Among deceleration time of mitral inflow, peak mitral inflow velocity (E), and peak diastolic mitral annulus velocity (E), only E correlated with tau (r = 0.51, P =.007). Prolonged tau (>/=50 ms) could be predicted by E <8 cm/s with a sensitivity of 73% (16 of 22) and a specificity of 100% (5 of 5). The E/E ratio correlated with left ventricular filling pressure (r = 0.79, P <.001). The E/E ratio of >/=11 could predict elevated left ventricular filling pressure (>/=15 mm Hg) with a sensitivity of 75% (9 of 12) and a specificity of 93% (14 of 15). Mitral annulus velocity is useful in the detection of impaired left ventricular relaxation and estimation of filling pressure even in patients with atrial fibrillation.