Many clinical reports have described postoperative hoarseness and sore throat after general anesthesia. In most cases, these symptoms were attributed to high pressure of the endotracheal tube cuff. The recommended cuff pressure is less than 25 mmHg, as excessive pressure produces ischemia of the tracheal mucosa. However, within the safe pressure range, postoperative hoarseness and sore throat are still often observed. In this study, one hundred and ninety patients of ASA classes I or II were allocated randomly to two groups, low cuff pressure group (< 15 mmHg) or high cuff pressure group (15-25 mmHg), using continuous monitoring with a cuff pressure gauge. We investigated the incidence of postoperative hoarseness and sore throat at 24 hours after intubation and on the seventh postoperative day. The incidence of postoperative hoarseness and sore throat was significantly decreased in the low pressure group at 24 hours after intubation as compared with the high pressure group, but there was no significant difference between the two groups on the seventh postoperative day. These results suggest that keeping the cuff pressure under 15 mmHg can prevent postoperative hoarseness or sore throat at 24 hours after intubation, and that a cuff pressure gauge is thought to be one of the indispensable monitors during anesthesia.