Current management of funguria

Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1999 Oct 1;56(19):1929-35; quiz 1936.


Recent findings on the epidemiology and treatment of funguria are reviewed. Funguria, or candiduria, is a common nosocomial condition and may develop as early as the first two weeks of hospitalization. Risk factors include antibacterial therapy, an indwelling urinary catheter, urologic procedures, female sex, diabetes, and immunosuppressive therapy. Candida albicans is the species most commonly isolated from the urine of infected patients. Spontaneous resolution of funguria is relatively infrequent. Furthermore, although nonpharmacologic measures, such as removing unnecessary antibacterials and changing or removing indwelling urinary catheters, may be beneficial, they are often inadequate without additional, pharmacologic therapy. The most serious complication of untreated asymptomatic funguria is candidemia. Bladder irrigations with amphotericin B have been the standard of therapy for many years; recently, the optimal concentration and method of irrigation (continuous versus intermittent) have been debated. Studies indicate that intravesical amphotericin B and oral fluconazole therapy are each effective in clearing funguria. Intravesical amphotericin B appears to act more rapidly; however, the effect of systemic fluconazole therapy often persists longer than that of amphotericin B irrigation, and oral therapy is more convenient and less expensive. Oral fluconazole appears to have a more delayed but more lasting effect on funguria than amphotericin B bladder irrigation. Studies are needed to determine whether intravesical amphotericin B still has a role in the treatment of funguria and to refine strategies involving fluconazole.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amphotericin B / administration & dosage
  • Amphotericin B / therapeutic use*
  • Antifungal Agents / administration & dosage
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Candidiasis / drug therapy*
  • Candidiasis / epidemiology
  • Candidiasis / etiology
  • Candidiasis / urine
  • Cross Infection / drug therapy*
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology
  • Cross Infection / etiology*
  • Female
  • Fluconazole / administration & dosage
  • Fluconazole / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sex Factors
  • Urinary Catheterization / adverse effects*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / drug therapy
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology
  • Urinary Tract Infections / etiology


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Amphotericin B
  • Fluconazole