Assembly of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa nonribosomal peptide siderophore pyochelin: In vitro reconstitution of aryl-4, 2-bisthiazoline synthetase activity from PchD, PchE, and PchF

Biochemistry. 1999 Nov 9;38(45):14941-54. doi: 10.1021/bi991787c.


Three Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteins involved in biogenesis of the nonribosomal peptide siderophore pyochelin, PchD, PchE, and PchF, have been expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli and are found to produce the tricyclic acid hydroxyphenyl-thiazolyl-thiazolinyl-carboxylic acid (HPTT-COOH), an advanced intermediate containing the aryl-4,2-bis-heterocyclic skeleton of the bithiazoline class of siderophores. The three proteins contain three adenylation domains, one specific for salicylate activation and two specific for cysteine activation, and three carrier protein domains (two in PchE and one in PchF) that undergo posttranslational priming with phosphopantetheine to enable covalent tethering of salicyl and cysteinyl moieties as acyl-S-enzyme intermediates. Two cyclization domains (Cy1 in PchE and Cy2 in PchF) create the two amide linkages in the elongating chains and the cyclodehydrations of acylcysteine moieties into thiazolinyl rings. The ninth domain, the most downstream domain in PchF, is the chain-terminating, acyl-S-enzyme thioester hydrolase that releases the HPTT-S-enzyme intermediate to the observed tandem bis-heterocyclic acid product. A PchF-thioesterase domain active site double mutant fails to turn over, but a monocyclic hydroxyphenyl-thiazolinyl-cysteine (HPT-Cys) product continues to be released from PchE, allowing assignment of the cascade of acyl-S-enzyme intermediates involved in initiation, elongation, and termination steps.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Catalysis
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cysteine / metabolism
  • Diphosphates / metabolism
  • Iron Chelating Agents / metabolism*
  • Pantothenic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Pantothenic Acid / metabolism
  • Peptide Synthases / metabolism*
  • Phenols / metabolism*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / metabolism*
  • Salicylates / metabolism
  • Siderophores / metabolism*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Thiazoles*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Diphosphates
  • Iron Chelating Agents
  • PchD protein, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Phenols
  • Salicylates
  • Siderophores
  • Thiazoles
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • phosphopantothenic acid
  • pyochelin
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Peptide Synthases
  • aryl-4,2-bisthiazoline synthetase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Cysteine

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF184620
  • GENBANK/AF184621
  • GENBANK/AF184622