CDR1, a multidrug resistance gene from Candida albicans, contains multiple regulatory domains in its promoter and the distal AP-1 element mediates its induction by miconazole

FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1999 Nov 15;180(2):213-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb08798.x.


We previously demonstrated that the CDR1 gene, encoding a multidrug transporter in Candida albicans, is differentially upregulated by various drugs and steroids. In order to get an insight into the molecular basis of the induction of this gene we analyzed its promoter region. The transcription start site was mapped to 63 nucleotides upstream of the initiating ATG. Reporter assays revealed the presence of four upstream activating and four upstream repressing sequence domains along the entire promoter. Like the native gene, promoter-luciferase recombinants showed enhanced activity in response to various stresses like drugs, human steroid hormones and heavy metals. Mutational analysis demonstrated that while the proximal promoter (-345/+1) contains all the regulatory domains required for its induction by various other stresses, the miconazole response is mediated via the distal promoter (-857/-1147), harboring an AP-1 site. The involvement of the AP-1 element in mediating the latter effect was evident by an increase in AP-1 binding activity following miconazole treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Candida albicans / drug effects*
  • Candida albicans / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple
  • Electroporation
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / metabolism
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal*
  • Genes, Fungal
  • Genes, MDR
  • Humans
  • Membrane Transport Proteins*
  • Miconazole / pharmacology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / genetics
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transformation, Genetic


  • Antifungal Agents
  • CDR1 protein, Candida albicans
  • Fungal Proteins
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • Miconazole