Bronchoscopy is currently the most commonly employed invasive procedure in the practice of pulmonary medicine. Both the rigid and flexible bronchoscopes are used to diagnose and treat various pulmonary disorders. The main diagnostic indications include pulmonary involvement by neoplasms, infections, diffuse lung diseases, and airway problems. Bronchoscopic needle aspiration remains an underutilized technique in the staging of lung cancer. Newer techniques such as bronchoscopic ultrasound appear promising and may lead to improved diagnostic yield from bronchoscopic procedures. The bronchoscope is used in application of laser therapy, brachytherapy, electrocautery, cryotherapy, placement of airway stents, and balloon dilatation to relieve airway obstruction caused by malignant and benign airway lesions.