Among adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is approximately 40%, according to recent well-designed studies that evaluated outcomes other than adherence as a primary end point. This finding suggests the need for the improvement of the adult OSAS treatment approach, either by improving adherence to CPAP treatment or by developing effective alternatives to CPAP. Technologic advances have allowed for the development of new treatments for OSAS that include automatic CPAP and innovative airway procedures. Studies evaluating the application of these new technologies are reviewed. These technologic advances can be viewed as possible improvements over the existing treatment approach only if the risks and benefits of each new treatment are well understood by OSAS patients and their physicians.