Four-dimensional control of the cell cycle

Nat Cell Biol. 1999 Jul;1(3):E73-9. doi: 10.1038/11041.


The cell-division cycle has to be regulated in both time and space. In the time dimension, the cell ensures that mitosis does not begin until DNA replication is completed and any damaged DNA is repaired, and that DNA replication normally follows mitosis. This is achieved by the synthesis and destruction of specific cell-cycle regulators at the right time in the cell cycle. In the spatial dimension, the cell coordinates dramatic reorganizations of the subcellular architecture at the entrance to and exit from mitosis, largely through the actions of protein kinases and phosphatases that are often localized to specific subcellular structures. Evidence is now accumulating to suggest that the spatial organization of cell-cycle regulators is also important in the temporal control of the cell cycle. Here I will focus on how the locations of the main components of the cell-cycle machinery are regulated as part of the mechanism by which the cell controls when and how it replicates and divides.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle / physiology*
  • Cell Nucleus / physiology*
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Repair
  • DNA Replication*
  • Humans