One hundred and seventy-three Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from surveillance studies conducted in daycare centres were studied. The mefE, erm and tet(M) genes were detected in 16.2, 45.1 and 47.4% of isolates respectively. Agreement between PCR results and antibiotic susceptibility patterns was 100%. Macrolide resistance was due to the presence of erm in 73.6% of strains and to the presence of mefE in the remaining 26.4%. All tetracycline resistant strains carried the tet(M) gene. erm was associated with tet(M) in 98.7% of strains, whereas no isolate carrying mefE carried tet(M). A significant association was found between mefE and serogroup 6 (P < 0.0005) and between erm and tet(M) and serogroup 19 (P < 0.00001).