Objectives: To compare rates of overall survival in men with biochemical failure (bF) to those with no bF after radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer.
Methods: Radical prostatectomy was performed in 1132 consecutive patients between June 1986 and September 1998, and bF (prostate-specific antigen [PSA] 0.2 ng/mL or greater) was documented in 213 patients (19%), with a mean follow-up of 56 months (range 1 to 125). Ninety-nine patients were treated with androgen ablation and/or radiation therapy at the time of bF. Kaplan-Meier estimates of bF, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were generated and compared using the log-rank test.
Results: The 10-year overall survival rates for patients with bF (88%) versus no bF (93%) were similar (P = 0.94). The survival rates of patients with bF were not statistically different than those of patients without bF when compared by age older than 65 years, preoperative PSA greater than 10 ng/mL, biopsy or specimen Gleason score 7 or greater, clinical Stage T2b-3, presence of extracapsular extension, positive surgical margins, and seminal vesicle invasion. Patients who received second-line treatment also had a similar 10-year overall survival rate (86%, P = 0.97). For the 213 patients with bF, the metastasis-free survival rate at 10 years was 74%. The overall survival rate for patients with distant metastasis (56%) was markedly lower (P <0.001) than for those without distant metastasis.
Conclusions: At 10 years, patients with a PSA recurrence after radical prostatectomy for localized disease have an excellent overall survival equivalent to those without a detectable PSA. Within this period, the clinical significance of a detectable PSA needs to be further evaluated.