The organic cation transporter (OCT) mediates translocation of various cationic molecules including drugs, toxins and endogenous substances. We examined gender differences in the expression of rat (r) OCT2 in the kidney. Slices and basolateral membrane vesicles of male rat kidney showed a higher transport activity for tetraethylammonium than those of female rat kidney. The expression levels of rOCT2 mRNA and protein in the kidney of males were much higher than those in females. There was no gender difference in mRNA expression of rOCT1 and rOCT3. These findings suggest that rOCT2 is responsible for the gender differences in renal basolateral membrane organic cation transport activity.