Suture anchors facilitate the surgical repair of capsuloligamentous structures to bone. Bioabsorbable suture anchors, which obviate potential pitfalls in the periarticular use of permanent implants, have recently become available. We randomly assigned 40 patients to undergo modified Bankart shoulder repairs with either nonabsorbable or absorbable suture anchors. The patients had a history of recurrent traumatic anterior instability that had not improved with nonoperative management. The average patient age was 22 years (range, 17 to 46), and the average preoperative Rowe score was 47 points in the nonabsorbable anchor group and 47 points in the absorbable anchor group. Average postoperative Rowe scores were 96 and 93 points, respectively. There was one failed result in the nonabsorbable anchor group and two in the absorbable anchor group. No statistically significant subjective or objective differences were found at an average of 25 months postoperatively. Our results reveal that, in this application, bioabsorbable suture anchors are a viable option for the repair of soft tissue to bone.