Physical load during work and leisure time as risk factors for back pain

Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999 Oct;25(5):387-403. doi: 10.5271/sjweh.451.


This systematic review assessed aspects of physical load during work and leisure time as risk factors for back pain. Several reviews on this topic are available, but this one is based on a strict systematic approach to identify and summarize the evidence, comparable with that applied in the clinical literature on the efficacy of intervention for back pain. A computerized bibliographical search was made of several data bases for studies with a cohort or case-referent design. Cross-sectional studies were excluded. A rating system was used to assess the strength of the evidence, based on the methodological quality of 28 cohort and 3 case-referent studies and the consistency of the findings. Strong evidence exists for manual materials handling, bending and twisting, and whole-body vibration as risk factors for back pain. The evidence was moderate for patient handling and heavy physical work, and no evidence was found for standing or walking, sitting, sports, and total leisure-time physical activity.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Athletic Injuries / epidemiology*
  • Athletic Injuries / etiology
  • Back Pain / epidemiology*
  • Back Pain / etiology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands / epidemiology
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Occupational Diseases / etiology
  • Physical Exertion
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Weight-Bearing*
  • Workload*