Cell-matrix interactions exert a profound influence on cell function and behavior. Our earlier observations suggested that disruption of the actin cytoskeleton results in the inhibition of phorbol ester-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. In this study, to understand the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, we treated glioblastoma cells with vanadate and phenylarsine oxide (PAO), which are inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Vanadate and PAO inhibited expression of phorbol ester-induced MMP-9 as well as constitutive expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. An assay of the activity of phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) indicated that vanadate-treated cells had reduced PTPase activity compared with that of untreated controls. Vanadate and PAO also inhibited actin polymerization, cell spreading, migration, and invasion of glioma cells. Furthermore, elevated levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation were observed in vanadate- and PAO-treated cells in both a concentration- and time-dependent fashion and were seen to have an inverse correlation with focal adhesion kinase protein expression. These results suggest that vanadate and PAO inhibited migration and invasion of glioma cells by their effect on the cytoskeleton and inhibition of MMP expression.
Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.