We have surveyed the mutations of TSC1 and TSC2 from 38 (25 sporadic, 11 familial, and 2 unknown) Japanese patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. In 23 of 38 subjects, we detected 18 new mutations in addition to 4 mutations that had been previously reported. We also found 3 new polymorphisms. The mutations were not clustered on a particular exon in either of the genes. Seven TSC1 mutations found in 3 familial and 4 sporadic cases were on the exons (3 missense, 2 nonsense point mutations, a 1-base insertion, and a 2-bp deletion). Fifteen TSC2 mutations were found in 5 familial cases, 10 sporadic cases, and 1 unknown case. The 12 mutations were on the exons (8 missense, 1 nonsense point mutations, a 1-bp insertion, a 5-bp deletion, and a 4-bp replacement) and 3 point mutations were on the exon-intron junctions. Although the patients with TSC2 mutations tend to exhibit relatively severe mental retardation in comparison to those with TSC1 mutations, a genotype-phenotype correlation could not yet be established. The widespread distribution of TSC1/TSC2 mutations hinders the development of a simple diagnostic test, and the identification of individual mutations does not provide the prediction of prognosis.