Comparative hybridization of cDNA arrays is a powerful tool for the measurement of differences in gene expression between two or more tissues. We optimized this technique and employed it to discover genes with potential for the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. This cancer is rarely identified in time for a good prognosis after diagnosis. An array of 21,500 unknown ovarian cDNAs was hybridized with labeled first-strand cDNA from 10 ovarian tumors and six normal tissues. One hundred and thirty-four clones are overexpressed in at least five of the 10 tumors. These cDNAs were sequenced and compared to public sequence databases. One of these, the gene HE4, was found to be expressed primarily in some ovarian cancers, and is thus a potential marker of ovarian carcinoma.