To simultaneously assess glioma cell invasion and glioma angiogenesis in vivo by non-invasive and quantitative means, DiI-labeled C6 glioma spheroids were implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber preparation of nude mice (n = 6). Heat-inactivated spheroids served as controls to distinguish between active and passive cell spread. Using multi-fluorescent intravital videomicroscopy, glioma cell migration was analyzed on days 1-4, 6, and 10 and spheroid vascularization was analyzed on days 3, 6, and 10 after implantation. Additionally, C6 glioma spheroids were implanted into the chronic cranial window of nude mice as an orthotopic implantation site (n = 4). In the dorsal skinfold chamber, spheroids were vascularized within 10 days and revealed a tumor-specific microvasculature. In parallel, individual glioma cells detached from the spheroid edge and migrated centrifugally demonstrating an affinity to tumor and host vessels. Glioma cells demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of their regional migratory activity (0.2-9.6 microm/h) which correlated well with regional glioma angiogenesis (r = 0.733). Using the cranial window, glioma cells spread similarly demonstrating an affinity to the perivascular space of pial/subpial vessels with preference to the arteriolar segments. Intravital fluorescence microscopy represents a versatile technique to assess the complex relationship between glioma-driven angiogenesis and glioma cell invasion.