Effects of caring, measurement, and time on miscarriage impact and women's well-being

Nurs Res. 1999 Nov-Dec;48(6):288-98. doi: 10.1097/00006199-199911000-00004.


Background: Responses to miscarriage range from relief to devastation, yet there have been no randomized controlled studies that demonstrate significant effects of counseling with women who miscarry.

Objective: To test the effects of caring-based counseling, measurement, and time on the integration of loss (miscarriage impact) and women's emotional well-being (moods and self-esteem) in the first year after miscarrying.

Method: ANCOVA was used in this randomized, longitudinal Solomon four-group experimental investigation. Enrolled were 242; 185 completed. Outcomes included: self-esteem, overall emotional disturbance, anger, depression, anxiety, confusion, overall miscarriage impact, personal significance, devastating event, lost baby, and isolated.

Results: During the first year after loss (a) caring was effective in reducing overall emotional disturbance, anger, and depression; and (b) time passing led to increased self-esteem and decreased anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, and personal significance of loss.

Conclusion: Caring, measurement, and time had some positive and significant effects on the integration of loss and enhancement of well-being in the first year subsequent to miscarrying.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Abortion, Spontaneous / psychology*
  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Counseling*
  • Emotions*
  • Empathy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Pregnancy
  • Psychometrics
  • Self Concept
  • Time Factors
  • Women's Health