Lipoprotein (a) and genetic polymorphisms of clotting factor V, prothrombin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase are risk factors of spontaneous ischemic stroke in childhood

Blood. 1999 Dec 1;94(11):3678-82.


Ischemic stroke is a rare event in childhood. In approximately one third of cases no obvious underlying cause or disorder can be detected. We investigated the importance of genetic risk factors of venous thromboembolism in childhood or stroke in adulthood as risk factors for spontaneous ischemic stroke in children. One hundred forty-eight Caucasian infants and children (aged 0.5 to 16 years) with stroke and 296 age-matched controls from the same geographic areas as the patients were analyzed for increased lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels >30 mg/dL; for the presence of the factor V (FV) G1691A mutation, the prothrombin (PT) G20210A variant, and the TT677 genotype of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR); and deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin. The following frequencies (patients v controls), odds ratios (ORs), and confidence intervals (CIs) of single risk factors were found: Lp(a) >30 mg/dL (26.4% v 4.7%; OR/CI, 7.2/3.8 to 13.8; P <.0001), FV G1691A (20.2% v 4%; OR/CI, 6/2.97 to 12.1; P <.0001), protein C deficiency (6% v 0.67%; OR/CI, 9.5/2 to 44.6; P =.001), PT G20210A (6% v 1.3%; OR/CI, 4.7/1.4 to 15.6; P =.01), and the MTHFR TT677 genotype (23.6% v 10.4%; OR/CI, 2.4/1.53 to 4.5; P <.0001). A combination of the heterozygous FV G1691A mutation with increased Lp(a) (n = 11) or the MTHFR TT677 genotype (n = 5) was found in 10. 8% of cases, but only 0.3% of controls (OR/CI, 35.75/4.7 to 272; P <. 0001). Increased Lp (a) levels, the FV G1691A mutation, protein C deficiency, the prothrombin G20210A variant, and the MTHFR TT677 are important risk factors for spontaneous ischemic stroke in childhood.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Factor V / genetics*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Lipoprotein(a) / genetics*
  • Male
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Prothrombin / genetics*
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke / etiology
  • Stroke / genetics*


  • Lipoprotein(a)
  • Factor V
  • Prothrombin
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)