Confocal laser scanning microscopy

Biotechniques. 1999 Nov;27(5):992-6, 998-1002, 1004. doi: 10.2144/99275ov01.


Many technological advancements of the past decade have contributed to improvements in the photon efficiency of the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The resolution of images from the new generation of CLSMs is approaching that achieved by the microscope itself because of continued development in digital imaging methods, laser technology and the availability of brighter and more photostable fluorescent probes. Such advances have made possible novel experimental approaches for multiple label fluorescence, live cell imaging and multidimensional microscopy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Caenorhabditis elegans / cytology
  • Drosophila / cytology
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Lasers
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Microscopy, Confocal* / instrumentation
  • Microscopy, Confocal* / methods


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins