The audiograms of three Japanese macaques and seven humans were determined in a free-field environment using loudspeakers. The monkeys and humans were tested using tones ranging from 8 Hz to 40 kHz and 4 Hz to 22.4 kHz, respectively. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level the monkeys were able to hear tones extending from 28 Hz to 37 kHz with their best sensitivity of 1 dB occurring at 4 kHz. The human 60-dB hearing range extended from 31 Hz to 17.6 kHz with a best sensitivity of -10 dB at 2 and 4 kHz. These results indicate that the Japanese macaque has low-frequency hearing equal to that of humans and better than that indicated by previous audiograms obtained using headphones.