The energy expenditure of normal and pathologic gait

Gait Posture. 1999 Jul;9(3):207-31. doi: 10.1016/s0966-6362(99)00009-0.


Physiological energy expenditure measurement has proven to be a reliable method of quantitatively assessing the penalties imposed by gait disability. The purpose of this review is to outline the basic principles of exercise physiology relevant to human locomotion; detail the energy expenditure of normal walking; and summarize the results of energy expenditure studies performed in patients with specific neurologic and orthopedic disabilities. The magnitude of the disabilities and the patients' capacity to tolerate the increased energy requirements are compared. This paper also will examine the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions at mitigating the energetic penalties of disability during ambulation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amputation
  • Ankle Joint / physiology
  • Arthrodesis
  • Cerebral Palsy / physiopathology
  • Crutches
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Gait / physiology*
  • Hip Joint / physiology
  • Hip Joint / surgery
  • Humans
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology
  • Neural Tube Defects / physiopathology
  • Orthotic Devices
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Physical Fitness
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Spinal Cord Injuries / physiopathology
  • Stroke / physiopathology
  • Walking / physiology