The objective of this study was to investigate a relationship between indoor air pollution from heating and cooking with coal-burning stoves and from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-PY). 1-OH-PY was analysed in children living in three areas of Silesia, a province in Poland. Urine samples were collected in winter, (1) from children exposed to ETS and smoke resulting from indoor coal-burning and (2) from control children. Airborne particulates had been sampled by use of stationary samplers by the Regional Sanitary-Epidemiological Station, Katowice throughout 12 months prior to the urine sampling. The urinary level of 1-OH-PY tended to increase in children exposed to ETS, but the increase was not significant. The concentrations of 1-OH-PY in urine of passive smokers were significantly elevated only in Bytom where an index of smoking parents of the studied children was highest as compared to other areas. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) due to domestic heating and cooking with coal-burning stoves resulted in significantly increased levels of 1-OH-PY. The results of this study indicate that the uptake of PAH due to indoor air pollution strongly affected the level of 1-OH-PY and that the main source of PAH in indoor air was the household use of coal for heating and/or cooking. When the results associated with this kind of exposure were excluded, median 1-OH-PY levels from the three examined areas assumed a pattern more similar to that of the benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air.