Purpose: To present the cross-sectional retinal imaging results of optical coherence tomography in eyes with successfully repaired idiopathic macular hole and their relevance to visual recovery.
Methods: We studied 33 eyes with successful repair of an idiopathic macular hole through vitrectomy and fluid-gas exchange from 32 patients (11 men and 21 women) with ages ranging from 48 to 78 years, with a median age of 66 years. Preoperative conditions in eyes with primary surgery disclosed nine eyes with stage 2, 14 eyes with stage 3, and four eyes with stage 4 macular hole. An additional six eyes underwent a second surgery because the previous surgery was unsuccessful. Measurement of best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy with fundus contact lens, fundus photographs, and optical coherence tomographic examination were performed between 6 and 9 months after surgery in 29 eyes and between 15 and 36 months after surgery in four eyes.
Results: Optical coherence tomographic images of the repaired macular holes were categorized into three patterns. U-type (normal foveal contour; 13 eyes) showed mildly to moderately backscattering layers with a smooth circular surface covering retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris layers. In eyes with V-type (steep foveal contour; 13 eyes), the retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris layers were covered with moderately backscattering layers with a notch. W-type (foveal defect of neurosensory retina; seven eyes) showed abruptly or gradually terminating sensory retinal layers to expose the surface of the retinal pigment epithelium and choriocapillaris layers. Postoperative acuity was well correlated with these patterns of optical coherence tomographic images.
Conclusion: Assessment of successfully repaired idiopathic macular holes with optical coherence tomographic images provides a useful correlation with postoperative visual recovery.