Testosterone (T) levels were measured by salivary assays in 59 males at times of the day when T was expected to be highest and lowest. Relationships were evaluated for mean hormone levels across the two sessions and hormone level changes between sessions with performance on three-dimensional mental rotations, a spatial test which customarily favours males. An anagrams task and the digit symbol test were used as controls. Mental rotations scores showed a significant positive relationship with mean T levels but not with changes in T. There were no significant relationships between control test scores and mean T levels. Findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to the resolution of ambiguities in prior reported data.