Testosterone levels and spatial ability in men

Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999 Nov;24(8):813-22. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4530(99)00031-1.


Testosterone (T) levels were measured by salivary assays in 59 males at times of the day when T was expected to be highest and lowest. Relationships were evaluated for mean hormone levels across the two sessions and hormone level changes between sessions with performance on three-dimensional mental rotations, a spatial test which customarily favours males. An anagrams task and the digit symbol test were used as controls. Mental rotations scores showed a significant positive relationship with mean T levels but not with changes in T. There were no significant relationships between control test scores and mean T levels. Findings are discussed in terms of their contributions to the resolution of ambiguities in prior reported data.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aptitude / physiology*
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Depth Perception / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Orientation / physiology*
  • Pattern Recognition, Visual / physiology
  • Problem Solving / physiology
  • Saliva / metabolism
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Space Perception / physiology*
  • Testosterone / metabolism*


  • Testosterone